Articles

Professor Tu has written more than 150 articles and book chapters in English.

Articles in English

  • “A Chinese Perspective on Pain,” in Acta Neurochirurgica, Suppl. 38, pp. 147-151 (1987).
  • “A Confucian Perspective on Embodiment,” in The Body in Medical Thought and Practice, ed. Drew Leder, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
  • “A Confucian Perspective on Global Consciousness and Local Awareness,” in International House of Japan Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 1, Winter 1991.
  • “A Confucian Perspective on Human Rights,” in Confucianism and Human Rights.
  • “A Confucian Perspective on Learning of the Body and Soul,” (presented at Swarthmore College, May 30, 1993).
  • “A Confucian Perspective on the Core Values of the Global Community.”
  • “A Confucian Perspective on the Rise of Industrial East Asia,” in Confucianism and the Modernization of China, ed. Silke Krieger. Also in Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Oct. 1988.
  • “A Religiophilosophical Perspective on Pain,” in Pain and Society, ed. H.W. Kosterlitz, Weinheim: Verlag Chemie GmbH, 1980.
  • “A Step Beyond Enlightenment,” in Ethical and Spiritual Dimensions of Social Progress: World Summit for Social Development, 6-12 March, 1995 Copenhagen.
  • “A Tradition of Engagement: The Public Intellectual as a Confucian Idea,” in Harvard Asia Pacific Review (Summer 1997), p. 88.
  • “A Visit with Prof. Weiming Tu,” in East/West: The Chinese American Journal, 1978.
  • “An Inquiry into Wang Yang-ming’s Four-Sentence Teaching,” in The Eastern Buddhist, Vol. VII, No. 2 (Oct 1974).
  • “An Inquiry on the Five Relationships in Confucian Humanism,” in The Psycho-Cultural Dynamics of the Confucian Family: Past and Present, ed. Walter H. Slote, Seoul: International Cultural Society of Korea, 1986.
  • “An Introductory Note on Time and Temporality,” in Philosophy East & West, Vol. 24, Number 2 (April 1974).
  • “Asian Values and the Asian Crisis: A Confucian Humanist Perspective,” Talk Given at the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy Rice University, Houston, Texas, October 17, 1998.
  • “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality,” in Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelation of Heaven, Earth, and Humans, ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Berthrong, Cambridge: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1998.
  • “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality,” in Worldviews & Ecology, ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker, Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1994.
  • “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality: A Confucian Perspective on Ethics, Migration, and Global Stewardship,” in International Migration Review, Vol. 30, Spring 1996.
  • “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality: An Exploration of Spiritual Resources in the Global Community.”
  • “Beyond the Enlightenment Mentality: Humanity and Rightness: Exploring Confucian Democracy.”
  • “Body, Body Politic and the Way – The Emergence of a Communal Critical Self-Awareness in the Classical Age,” 1996 Reishcauer Lectures Series 1/3.
  • “Body, Body Politic and the Way – The Emergence of a Communal Critical Self-Awareness in the Classical Age,” Reischauer Lecture, 1996.
  • “Celebrate Cultural Diversity and Identify Core Values.” Talk presented at the 13th Annual Fulbright Association Conference on Building Pacific Regional Educational Networks and Links in Honolulu, Oct. 7, 1990.
  • “Challenges in Contemporary Spirituality: An Introductory Note,” in Local Knowledge, Ancient Wisdom: Challenges in Contemporary Spirituality, ed. Steven Friesen, Honolulu: The East – West Center, 1991.
  • “Chinese Philosophy: A Synoptic View,” in A Companion to World Philosophies, ed. Eliot Deutsch (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997), pp. 3-23.
  • “Committee of 100 Panel on Human Rights.”
  • “Conference Report: Workshop on Confucian Humanism,” in Bulletin of AAAS, 1990 March.
  • “Confucian Dimension in the East Asian Development Model,” (a background paper for the Workshop on “comparative Analyses of the Development Process in East and Southeast Asia: An Integrated Disciplinary Approach,” Honolulu, May 23-25, 1990.
  • “Confucian Dimension in the East Asian Development Model,” (Paper for Conference on Confucianism and Economic Development in East Asia, May 29-31, 1989, Taipei).
  • “Confucian Dimension in the East Asian Development Model,” in Confucianism and Economic Development, ed. Tzong-shian Yu and Joseph S. Lee, Taipei: Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, 1995; also in The Impact of Traditional Thought on Present – Day Japan, ed. Josef Kreiner, Munchen: Iudicium Verlag GmbH, 1996.
  • “Confucian Humanism and Dialogue among Civilizations” in Collection of Speeches in Chinese Universities (Vol. 2, Kewen Publishing House, 2001).
  • “Confucian Humanism in A Modern Perspective,” in Confucianism and Modernization: A Symposium, ed. Joseph P.L. Jiang, Taipei: Freedom Council, 1987.
  • “Confucian Humanism in Political Process,” delivered at Mansfield Conference, Oct 21, 1996.
  • “Confucian Studies in the People’s Republic.” in Humanities, Sept/Oct 1987.
  • “Confucian Tradition in Chinese History,” in Heritage of China, ed. Paul S. Ropp, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • “Confucian Tradition: A Confucian Perspective in Learning to be Human,” in The World’s Religious Traditions: Essays in Honour of Wilfred Cantwell Smith, ed. Frank Whaling, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1984. Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity,” in Bulletin of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. L, No. 2, (November 1996), pp. 12-39.
  • “Confucian Values in East Asian Modernity: Implications for Global Partnership.”
  • “Confucianism,” in Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced, ed. by Arvind Sharma, San Francisco: Harper, 1993.
  • “Confucianism and Civilization” in Dialogue of Civilizations: A New Peace Agenda for a New Millinnium (eds. Majid Tehranian and David W. Chappell (London: I.B Tauris, 2002, pp. 83-90).
  • “Confucianism and Human Rights,” (Epilogue) in Confucianism and Human Rights, co-ed. with de Bary, NY: Columbia University Press, 1998.
  • “Confucianism and Liberalism” in Dao: A Journal of Comparative Literature (Vol. II, No. 1, Winter 2002), pp. 1-20.
  • “Confucianism in China Today,” in Beijing Review, No. 41, Oct. 12, 1987.
  • “Confucianism: Symbol and Substance in Recent Times,” in Value Change in Chinese Society, ed. Richard W. Wilson, New York: Praeger, 1979.
  • “Confucius and Confucianism,” in Confucianism and the Family, ed. Walter H. Slote and George A. DeVos, (Albany: SUNY Press, 1998), pp. 3-36.
  • “Confucius and Confucianism,” in The New Encyclopaeia Britannica, Vol. 16, 15th edition, 1992.
  • “Confucius: The Embodiment of Faith in Humanity,” in The World & I, November, 1999.
  • “Core Values and the Possibility of a Fiduciary Global Community,” in Restructuring for World Peace: on the threshold of the Twenty-First Century, ed. K Tehranian and M. Tehranian, Cresskill, N. J.: Hampton Press, c1992.
  • “Creative Tension between Jen and Li,” in Philosophy East And West, April, 1968 (Also in Humanity and Self-Cultivation).
  • “Crisis and Creativity: A Confucian Response to the Second Axial Age,” in Doors of Understanding: Conversations on Global Spirituality in Honor of Ewert Cousins, ed. Steven Chase (Quincy: Franciscan Press, 1997), pp. 399-418.
  • “Cultural China and the “Third Epoch,” of Confucian Humanism,” talk given at Boston Research Center for the 21st Century, Mar. 11, 1996.
  • “Cultural China: The Periphery as the Center,” in Daedalus, Vol. 120, no. 2 (Spring, 1991). Also in The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Being Chinese Today, ed. Tu Weiming, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
  • “Cultural Identity and the Politics of Recognition in Contemporary Taiwan,” in China Quarterly, No. 148 (December 1996), pp. 1115-1140; also in Contemporary Taiwan, ed. David Shambaugh (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), pp. 71-96.
  • “Deathsong of the River: Whither Chinese Culture?,” in Deathsong of the River: A Reader’s Guide to the Chinese TV Series Heshang, ed. Su Xiaokang, tr. Richard Bodman, Cornell Univ. East Asia Program, 1991.
  • “Destructive Will and Ideological Holocaust,” in Daedalus, Vol. 125, No. 1 (Winter 1996) pp. 149-179; in Social Suffering, ed. A. Kleinman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997) pp. 149-179.
  • “Dialogue among Civilizations: the message of China’s rise to the world” in Dongyin qiusuo (Search in Japan) (Beijing: Social Sciences Document Publication House, 2003).
  • “Embodying the Universe: A Note on Confucian Self-Realization,” in The World & I: A Chronicle of Our Changing Era, August 1989. Also in Self As Person in Asian Theory and Practice, ed. Roger Ames, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994 & Confucian Thought.
  • “Family, Nation, and the World: The Global Ethic as A Modern Confucian Quest,” Reischauer Lecture, 1996.
  • “Family, Nation, and the World: The Global Ethic as the Modern Confucian Quest,” in Social Semiotics, Vol. 8, No. 2/3 (August/December 1998), pp. 283-296.
  • “Foreword” to Harvard-Yenching Library Rare Books Collection (August 2001).
  • “Foreword” to Ultimate Realities, Robert C. Neville (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2001).
  • “Foreword,” for Vol. II of Comparative Religious Ideas Project.
  • “Foreword,” to Kernel of Humanity, by Thomas Selover.
  • “Foreword,” to Neville’s Boston Confucianism.
  • “Foreword,” to The Korean Neo-Confucianism of Yi Yulgok, By Young-chan Ro, Albany: SUNY, 1989.
  • “Further Thoughts,” in Philosophy East and West, July 1981.
  • “Global Community as Lived Reality: Exploring Spiritual Resources for Social Development,” in Social Policy and Social Progress: A Review Published by the United Nations, First Issue – Special Issue on the Social Summit Copenhagen, 6-12 March 1995, (New York: United Nations, 1996) pp. 39-51.
  • “Globalization and the Dialogue among Civilizations” in Open Times (Guangzhou: Guangzhou Academy of Social Scienes, Vol. 1, 2002), pp. 123-131.
  • “Happiness in the Confucian Way,” in In Pursuit of Happiness, ed. Leroy S. Rouner, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995. (Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, vol. 16), p. 104-121.
  • “Heart, Human Nature, and Feeling – The Empowerment of a Cultural Vision in Neo-Confucian Spirituality,” 1996 Reischauer Lectures Series 2/3.
  • “Heart, Human Nature, and Feeling – The Empowerment of a Cultural Vision in Neo-Confucian Spirituality,” Reischauer Lecture, 1996.
  • “Historian and Confucian Thinker,” in A World of Ideas: Public Opinions from Private Citizens, ed. Andie Tucher, New York: Doubleday, 1990.
  • “Historical Significance of Confucian Discourse,” in The China Quarterly, Dec. 1994.
  • “Hsi-Yu Chi as an Allegorical Pilgrimage in Self-Cultivation,” in History of Religions, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov. 1979.
  • “Hsiung Shih-li’s Quest for Authentic Existence,” in The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China, ed. Charlotte Furth, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.
  • “Human Rights as a Confucian Moral Discourse,” in Confucianism and Human Rights, ed. W. de Bary, New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
  • “Humanism and Global Ethics” in Collection of Speeches in Chinese Universities (Vol. 3, Kewen Publishing House, 2001).
  • “Humanity as Embodied Love: Exploring Filial Piety in a Global Ethical Perspective,” in Filial Piety and Future Society, ed. Filial Piety International Conference Committee; in Journal of Religious Studies (Punjabi University), Vol. XXV, No. 2, Autumn 1994; also in Filial Piety and Future Society: Proceedings of Filial Piety International Conference May 15-17, 1995; also in Is There a Human Nature?, ed. Leroy S. Rouner (Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press, 1997), pp. 172-181; also in Jen, Agape, Tao with Tu Weiming, ed. Marko Zlomislic and David Goicoechea, Binhamton: IGCS, Binghamton University, 1999.
  • “Iconoclasm, Holistic Vision, and patient Watchfulness: A Personal Reflection on the Modern Chinese Intellectual Quest,” in Daedalus, Spring 1987, Vol. 116, No. 2, p. 75 (20).
  • “Implications of the Rise of ‘Confucian’ East Asia,” in Daedalus (Multiple Modernities), Winter 2000.
  • “Industrial East Asia: The Role of Culture,” in Bulletin of American Academy of Arts and Sciences, April 1985.
  • “‘Inner Experience’: the Basis of Creativity in Neo-Confucian Thinking,” in Artists and Traditions: Uses of the Past in Chinese Culture, ed. Christian F. Murck. Also in Humanity and Self-Cultivation, 1978.
  • “Intellectual Effervescence in China,” in Daedalus, Spring 1992.
  • “Interview with Tu Weiming,” (conducted in the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, 1998), in Philosophy Now: A Magazine of Ideas, issue 32 (Spring 1999).
  • “Introduction to Traditional China,” edited with James Liu, Prentice Hall, 1970.
  • “Introduction: Cultural Perspectives,” in Dadaelus (A special issue on “China in Transformation,” Spring, 1993. Also in China in Tramsformation.
  • “Jen as a Living Metaphor in the Confucian Analects,” in Philosophy East and West. vol. XXXI, no. 1 (Jan 1981). Also in Confucian Thought. Originally a paper prepared for the Workshop on Classical Chinese Thought August 2-13, 1976, Harvard University.
  • “Joining East and West: A Confucian Perspective on Human Rights,” in Harvard International Review, Summer 1998, pp. 44-49.
  • “Li as Process of Humanization,” in Philosophy East and West, April, 1972 (Also in Humanity and Self-Cultivation).
  • “Mustering the Conceptual Resources to Grasp a World in Flux,” in International Studies in the Next Millennium: Meeting the Challenge of Globalization, ed. Julia A. Kushigian (Westport: Praeger, 1998), pp. 3-15.
  • “Mutual Learning as a New Agenda for Social Development.”
  • “On Neo-Confucianism and Human Relatedness,” in Religion & the Family in East Asia, ed. George De Vos, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “On the Mencian Perception of Moral Self-development,” in The Monist, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Jan. 1978).
  • “On the Transition of Chinese Traditional Culture” in The Nankai Journal (Tianjin: Nankai University, Vol. 3, 2002), pp. 1-13.
  • “Pain and Suffering in Confucian Self-Cultivation,” in Philosophy East & West, Oct., 1984.
  • “Probing the ‘Three Bonds’ and ‘Five Relationships’ in Confucian Humanism,” in Confucianism and the Family, ed. Walter H. Slote and George A. DeVos, Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.
  • “Prof: Rights Without Duty Can Be Detrimental,” in The Strait Times, Nov. 28, 1988.
  • “Profound Learning, Personal Knowledge, and Poetic Vision,” for Conference on “The Evolution of Shih Poetry from the Han through the Tang.”Also in The Vitality of the Lyric Voice, ed. Shuen-fu Lin and Stephen Owen, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • “Public Intellectual as a Confucian Idea.”
  • “Reflecting on the Cultural Revolution and Collective Amnesia,” in Inside China Mainland, vol. 18, no. 8, (August, 1996), pp. 10-11. Also in Mingpao Daily (June, 1996).
  • “Public Intellectual as a Confucian Idea.”
  • “Self-Cultivation as Education Embodying Humanity,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy (1998), Bowling Green: Philosophy Documentation Center, Bowling Green State University, 1999.
  • “Self-Cultivation as Education Embodying Humanity,” in The Aesthetic Turn: Reading Eliot Deutsch on Comparative Philosophy, ed. Roger T. Ames, Chicago: Open Court, 2000.
  • “Self-Cultivation in Chinese Philosophy,” in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward Craig, New York: Routledge, 1998.
  • “Selfhood and Otherness in Confucian Thought,” in Culture & Self: Asian and Western Perspectives, ed. Anthony Marsella, NY: Tavistock, 1985. Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “Shifting Perspectives on Text and History,” in Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2 (Feb. 1979).
  • “Sources of the Self in Creative Transformation: An Exploration of Tung Ch’i-ch’ang’s aesthetic reflexivity,” in Jen, Agape, Tao with Tu Weiming, ed. Marko Zlomislic and David Goicoechea, Binhamton: IGCS, Binghamton University, 1999.
  • “Structure and Function of the Confucian Intellectual in Ancient China,” in Origins & Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations, ed. S. Eisenstadt, 1986. Also in Way Learning and Politics: Essays on the Confucian Intellectual, 1993.
  • “Subjectivity and Ontological Reality – An Interpretation of Wang Yang-ming’s Mode of Thinking,” in Philosophy East & West, Vol. 23, Number 1 & 2 (Jan. & April 1973).
  • “Subjectivity in Liu Tsung-chou’s Philosophical Anthropology,” in Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, ed. Donald Munro, Ann Arbor: Center for Asian Studies of the University of Michigan, 1985. Also in Way Learning and Politics: Essays on the Confucian Intellectual., 1993.
  • “The ‘Moral Universal’ from the Perspectives of East Asian Thought,” in Morality as a Biological Phenomenon: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Biology and Morals (Berlin 1977, November 28 – December 2), ed. Gunther Stent, Berlin: Abakon – Verlagsgesellschaft, 1978. ; and in Morality as a Biological Phenomenon: the Pre-suppositions of Sociobiological Research, ed. Gunther Stent, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980; also in Philosophy East & West, vol. XXXI, no. 3 (July 1981) & Confucian Thought.
  • “The Complex Bridges between China and the West,” in A Parliament of Minds: Philosophy for a New Millennium, ed. Michael Tobias, J. Patrick Fitzgerald and David Rothenberg, Albany: SUNY, 2000.
  • “The Confucian Perception of Adulthood,” in Daedalus, Spring 1976. Also in Humanity and Self-Cultivation, 1979.
  • “The Confucian Sage: Exemplar of Personal Knowledge,” in Saints & Virtues, ed. John S. Hawley, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Also in Way Learning and Politics: Essays on the Confucian Intellectual.
  • “The Context of Dialogue: Globalization and Diversity” in Crossing the Divide: Dialogue among Civilizations (New Jersey: Seton Hall University, 2001).
  • “The Continuity of Being: Chinese Visions of Nature,” in Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelation of Heaven, Earth, and Humans, ed. Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Berthrong, (Cambridge: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1998), pp. 105-122.
  • “The Continuity of Being: Chinese Visions of Nature,” presented at Confucianism and Ecology Conference (May 30 – June 1, 1996).
  • “The Continuity of Being: Chinese Visions of Nature,” in Nature: in Asian Traditions of Thought, ed. J. Baird Callicott and Roger Ames. Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “The Ecological Turn in New Confucian Humanism: Implication for China and the World” in Daedalus (Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fall 2001).
  • “The Enlightenment Mentality and the Chinese Intellectual Dilemma,” in Perspectives on Modern China, ed. K. Lieberthal, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
  • “The Global Significance of Local Knowledge: New Perspective on Confucian Humanism” in Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies (Vol. 1, No. 1, August 2001).
  • “The Historization of Politics in the Perspective of the Ch’un-ch’iu.” Paper submitted to a symposium organized by the Conference for the Study of Political Thought Toronto, April 1-3, 1977.
  • “The Idea of the Human in Mencian Thought: An Approach to Chinese Aesthetics,” in Theories of the Arts in China, eds. Susan Bush and Christian Murck, Princeton University Press, 1984. Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “The Implication of Local Knowledge for Global Ethics (Bentu zhishi de pushi yiyi)” in Dialogue among Civilizations: Global implication of local knowledge (Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2002, pp. 7-10).
  • “The Meaning of Life: Reflection,” in Words and Pictures on Why We Are Here, ed. David Friend and the editors of Life (Boston: Little, Brown and Company), p. 200.
  • “The Meaning of Ritual in Confucian Symbolism.” Paper submitted to the Panel on Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast, Asilomar Conference Grounds in Pacific Gove, California, June 12, 1976.
  • “The Problematik of Kant and the Issue of Transcendence: A Reflection on ‘Sinological Torque’,” in Philosophy East & West, No. 2, April 1978.
  • “The Quest for Meaning: Religion in the People’s Republic of China,” in The Desecularization of the World, ed. Peter Berger, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1999.
  • “The Religious Situations in the People’s Republic of China Today,” in Religion in Today’s World, ed. Frank Whaling, Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1987.
  • “The Search for Roots in Industrial East Asia: The Case of the Confucian Revival,” in Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. Martin Marty, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  • “The Sung Confucian Idea of Education: A Background Understanding,” in Neo-Confucian Education: The Formative Sage, ed. Wm. Theodore de Bary & John W. Chaffee (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), pp. 139-150.
  • “The Thought of “Huang-Lao,” : A Reflection on the Lao Tzu and Huang Ti Texts in the Silk Manuscripts of Ma-hwang-tui,” in Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. XXXIX, Number 1 (November 1979).
  • “The Unity of Knowing and Acting – From a Neo-Confucian Perspective,” in Philosophy: Theory and Practice – Proceedings of the International Seminar on World Philosophy, Madras, December 7-17, 1970. Editor, T.M. P. Mahadevan, Madras: Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy, University of Madras, 1974.
  • “The Value of the Human in Classical Confucian Thought.” in Humanitas, vol. XV, no. 2 (May, 1979). Also in Confucian Thought.
  • “To Acquire Wisdom: The Way of Wang Yang Ming by Julia Ching,” (Book Review) in Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, Dec., 1977.
  • “Toward a Third Epoch of Confucian Humanism: A Background Understanding,” in Confucianism: The Dynamics of Tradition, ed. Irene Eber, New York: Macmillan, 1986. Also in Way Learning and Politics: Essays on the Confucian Intellectual, 1993.
  • “Towards a Global Ethics: Spiritual Implications of the Islam-Confucianism Dialogue,” (keynote address at 1996 Seminar on Islam & Confucianism, Malaysia); in Islam and Confucianism: A Civilizational Dialogue?, ed. Osman Bakar, Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press), pp. 19?34?.
  • “Towards an Integrated Study on Confucianism,” in Akten des XIV. Internationalen Kongresses fuer Philosophie, Wien: Herder, Sept 2-9 1968.
  • “Ultimate Self-transformation as a Communal Act: Comments on Modes of Self-Cultivation,” in Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 6 (1979).
  • “When Confucianism Grapples with Democracy,” The Sunday Times, Nov 27, 1988.
  • “When Democracy Confronts Confucianism,” Sept. 8, 1988.
  • “Yen Yuan: From Inner Experience to Lived Concreteness,” in The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism, ed. Wm T. de Bary, New York: Columbia University Press, 1975. Also in Humanity and Self-Cultivation, 1978. Originally a discussion paper submitted to the Conference on 17th – Century Chinese Thought, Lake Como, Italy September 6-12, 1970.
  • “Yi Hwang’s Perception of the Mind,” for International Symposium on Neo-Confucianism and Yi Toegye in Seoul, August 20-23, 1978.
  • “Yi T’oegye’s Intellectual Self-definition: An exploration in T’oegye’s Life and Thought, and the World and the Future,” the 17th International Conference on T’oegye Studies (The International Toegyehak Society, 2001).
  • “Yi T’oegye’s Perception of Human Nature,” in The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea, ed. Wm Theodore de Bary, 1985.
  • “Yi Yulgok’s Perception of Sagely Learning,” in Papers of the 3rd International Conference of the Academy of Korean Studies, 1984 (in both English and Korean).
  • “Zhongyong (The Mean),” in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward Craig (New York: Routledge, 1998).